Choosing Your First Metal Lathe

If you’re the type person, who wants to go beyond woodworking or perhaps try your hand at building a small steam engine or IC (internal combustion) engine you most likely will be looking for a metal lathe. Choosing a metal lathe is somewhat intimidating, especially for the first time buyer. A simple web search will yield all kinds of opinions and choices. One thing you quickly learn is there can be fierce loyalty to brand names, country of origin, size, and sometimes-even color!

So I may as well get in the fray and submit my ideas. However, be forewarned, I have a few dogs in the fight. Over the past 20 years I’ve owned an American and Asian lathes, in fact I’m on my forth lathe right now. I hope that during the past 20 or so years I’ve been able to pick up a few tidbits that may help you in your choice.

First, let me break tradition. Most people will tell you “any lathe is better than no lathe.” However, I don’t necessarily agree with that. I believe, a worn out lathe is nothing but trouble, ESPECIALLY for someone who has never used a metal lathe before. Therefore, before we start talking about size, heritage, or color, if this is your first lathe, please seek out a lathe that is at least in “good” condition, not some worn out hunk of cast iron.

Next, let’s look at sizes. The size of lathes in the Unites States is measured in terms of the diameter and the lengths, in inches, of the material that can be turned. For example, you will see lathes that are sized as 6 X 18, 7 X 14, 12 X 36, etc. That means a 6 X 18 lathe can theoretically turn a 6-inch diameter piece by 18 inches long. In reality, it will be somewhat smaller since you have to allow slight room for the lathe tooling. BTW, our English friends would measure the same lathe 3 X 18 since they measure from the center of the lathe spindle (3 X 2 = 6). One last thing about size: Get one big enough. I’ve seen and known, folks who buy too small and then have to upgrade within a year or two.

The next critical decision is deciding on manual change gears or quick-change gearbox. I’ve had both and believe me a gearbox with useable speed changes is a tremendous time saver. However, the key word here is usable. I’ve seen (and owned) lathes that the low speed was good but the high speed was excessively slow and vice versa. Moreover, I’ve owned manual change gears that, while it takes about 5 minutes to change gears, the speed selection is spot on. Pluses and minus, just like life. After 20 years, here’s my conclusion. If you can live with the selection of speeds on the quick change, go for it. However, don’t let it be a deal breaker, the lathe I currently use most is a manual change and I really don’t miss (most of the time) the quick change as much as I thought.

Now for the big question-USA or Asian? What a can of worms this is. Once again, I’ve owned both. Bottom line: Today’s Asian lathes are not a bad tool. For a long time, folks considered them a ‘kit’ of sorts that once bought you took the machine apart, cleaned everything, smoothed casting marks, usually replace bolts with USA stock and put it back together. Today things are a lot different. The last lathe I bought was a Lathemaster 9 X 30. All it needed was uncrating, cleaning the shipping grease off and start turning. It took less than an hour from the back of the truck to switch on and ready to run. And the Lathemaster is truly a fine machine and a pleasure to use.

Final thoughts: Look for a solid machine, ask lots of questions on the many home shop forums out there and make a decision. Just like life, nothing’s perfect or easy, and it’s the same when choosing a metal lathe. Nevertheless, go for it. Choose one that fits your needs and after you have a year or so under your belt, then you’ll make a better decision next time.

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How Does the Muscular System Work In Conjunction With The Immune System?

The muscles connect the bones of the skeletal system and it is one of their main functions. As the muscles contract they move the bones. However, muscles also have other minor functions which are not that well-known. They help in increasing the body fluids, like blood and lymph. The muscular system also helps to improve the immunity in the body.

The immune system is one of the most complex and diverse systems in the human body. It protects the body from bacterial and viral attacks. It works with the white blood cells, and the organs that produce it. In a book entitled “Anatomy and Physiology,” authored by Dr. Gary Thibodeau, it is mentioned that lymph nodes play a very important role in the immune system. The blood passes through spleen, which is a warehouse of cells. The lymph nodes filter the lymphatic fluid and contain immune cells.

Lymphatic fluid is light yellow in color, is the liquid in our blood. The main consistency for the fluid comes from dissolved sugars and salts. It does not contain proteins or cells required by the body. Lymphatic fluid is formed when the blood vessels leak fluids into the blood stream. The lymphatic nodes filter this fluid. Then it is sent back into the capillaries. The fluid that does not enter into the capillaries is sent back into the lymphatic system.

One of the main problems with blood circulation is the wrong posture that most people sit in. The heart is located at the upper portion of the body. The blood that is returning to the heart has to flow upwards against gravity. The capillaries create pressure and push the blood upwards. The lymphatic fluid too has to go through the same system of circulation. The muscular system plays a very valuable role in sending these fluids upwards. They squeeze the lymph upwards so that the fluid is kept circulating and the lymphatic system functions efficiently.

Lymphatic flow of fluids is very important for circulation and immune system. It helps the fluid travel throughout the body. The lymphatic fluid re-enters the blood through the lymphatic nodes and here it is checked for immune cells and possible bacteria or viruses. If lymphatic nodes are not functioning properly, they decrease the immunity of a person, making him/her more susceptible to illnesses. Lymph also plays an important role in circulation because if it did not return the blood, the volume of blood in the body will be affected.

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5 Strategies For Learning American Sign Language

To increase your language learning in the classroom, develop the following habits:

1. Build a language community.

Try not to miss class, especially at the beginning. Your class strives to form a language community: the cohesiveness of the group influences how rich the language exchange is in the classroom. Missing class makes it difficult to achieve this interactive environment. Maintain a signing environment in the classroom. During class breaks, before class begins, and whenever deaf people are present.

2. Minimize reliance on English as you listen or converse in ASL.

Leave English (and your voice) outside the door. Try not to translate in your head as you watch someone sign. At first, this will be difficult to do, but as you become more fluent, the temptation should lessen. Do not worry about taking notes during class. Instead use class time to immerse yourself in the language by interacting with the teacher and other students using ASL. The student DVD and workbook will help you retain the language introduced in class.

3. Focus on meaning rather than individual signs.

When your teacher tells a story, gives instructions, or explains a concept, try not to worry about a sign you missed or don’t know. Instead, focus on the meaning of what’s being said. If a particular sign is repeated over and over, and you still can’t figure out its meaning, then ask the teacher. Try to avoid asking your classmates for an English translation. You would lose out on valuable communication experiences needed to strengthen your comprehension skills.

4. Focus on the signer’s face, not on the hands for two very important reasons:

First, a lot of grammar is in the facial expression, so to really know what is said, you must see both the facial expression and what is signed; secondly, it is considered rude to look away from the signer’s face while they are signing to you.

5. Show you understand the signer.

Nod to show you are following along; give a puzzled look when you are not. Develop active listening behaviors like nodding, responding with the signs “huh?” “wow” or “really?” Listeners have very active roles in signed conversations. Actively listening increases your comprehension skills and optimizes your learning. Participate as much as possible by adding comments, agreeing or disagreeing, etc. Follow all conversations whether they are between teacher and class, teacher and student, or student and student. The more you participate, the more you will retain what you learn.

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Constraints on Participating in Leisure

In “Constraints to Leisure,” Edgar L. Jackson and David Scott provide an overview of the field of leisure constraints research as of the late 1990s. They point out that originally researchers in the field studies what was then called “barriers to recreation participation,” but the word “barriers” refers to what is now considered only one type of constraint – something that intervenes or prevents one from participating in an activity. But now other kinds of constraints are recognized, including one’s interpersonal and intrapersonal influences, which lead one not to take part in leisure. In additional, Jackson and Scott explain that the word “leisure” is used rather than just recreation, since it is a more inclusive term, and the word “participation” was also dropped, since leisure research doesn’t only involve whether a persona participates, but what they prefer to do, where, and what a particular type of leisure means to them.

Jackson and Scott also discuss the three major ways of looking at leisure that have evolved since the leisure constraints approach began in the 19th century. It began with considerations of “barriers to recreation participation and leisure enjoyment” based on the assumption that the main issue to address was service delivery, so that people would participate more if there were more services provided.

Then, starting in the 1960s, the focus shifted to looking at how particular barriers might affect the participation by individuals with different economic and social characteristics. Later, in the 1980s, the notion of constraints emerged, and the researchers realized that these constraints might not only be external, such as in the form of a facility or service, but could be internal, such as a constraint due to psychological and economic factors, or to social or interpersonal factors, such as a person’s relationships with his or her spouse or family.

Since the late 1980s, it would seem that three major concepts about the constraints affecting involvement in leisure activities have emerged, as described in a model proposed by Crawford and Godbey in 1987.

1) The structural or intervening constraint is one which affects someone from participating in some type of leisure, once the person already has indicated a preference for or desire to participate. As conceptualized by Crawford and Godbey, these structural or intervening constraints are “those factors that intervene between leisure preference and participation.” (p. 307). Research based on this conception of a constraint generally involves doing a survey to identify the particular items standing in the way of participation, such as time, costs, facilities, knowledge of the service or facility, lack of a partner for participation (such as a partner to participate in a doubles tennis match), and a lack of skills or a disability. The assumption underlying this approach is that a person would participate in any activity if not for these constraints, which seem much like the barriers conceived of when that term was in use. In looking for patterns and commonalities, using various quantitative methods such as factor analysis and cluster analysis, researchers found support for certain common structural and intervening constraints, most notably: “time commitments, costs, facilities and opportunities, skills and abilities, and transportation and access.” Additionally, the researchers sought to look at how different groups in society were constrained in different ways, such as women, or groups based on age and income, eventually leading researchers to recognize that most constraints are experienced to a greater or lesser degree depending on personal and situational factors.

2) An intrapersonal constraint is a psychological state or characteristic which affects leisure preferences, rather than acting as a barrier to participation once a person has already developed those preferences. For example, intrapersonal constraints which might lead a person not to develop particular leisure preferences might be that person’s “abilities, personality needs, prior socialization, and perceived reference group attitudes.”

3) An interpersonal constraint is one which occurs due to one’s interaction with one’s peers, family members, and others, leading one to think of certain leisure activities, places, or services as relevant or not relevant leisure activities to participate in. For instance, based on one’s understandings from interacting with others one might consider certain types of leisure to be inappropriate, uninteresting, or unavailable.

Although a hierarchical model was proposed by D.W. Crawford, E. L. Jackson, an G. Godbey to combine these three concepts into a single model, based on one first forming leisure preferences on the intrapersonal level, then encountering constraints on the interpersonal level, and finally encountering structural or intervening constraints, it would seem there is no such sequential ordering of these constraints. Rather they seem to act together in varying ways and orders, though Henderson and other researchers have sought to combine intrapersonal and interpersonal constraints together to become antecedent constraints.

Whether such antecedents constraints exist or not, another way to look at whether people participate in a leisure experience based on the way they respond to a perceived constraint. If they participate and want to participate, that would be described as a “successful proactive response.” If they don’t participate though they would like to do so, that would be considered a “reactive response.” Finally, if they participate but in a different way, that would be called a “partly successful proactive response.”

A good illustration of this response to a constraint approach might be a mountain climber who suffers a disability. The climber who gets a prosthetic and climbs the mountain himself might be considered to be showing a “successful proactive response.” The climber who decides to abandon the sport might be considered to be showing a “reactive response.” Finally the climber who is helped to climb the mountain by a team of other climbers might be considered to be engaging in a “partly successful proactive response.”

These ideas about constraints might be applied to how individuals get involved with some of the activities I have organized through several Meetup groups I run. These include an occasional Video Potluck Night, where people come to my house to see videos which I get at Blockbuster; feedback/discussion groups for indie film producers and directors, which might be considered a form of leisure, since most attendees are producing and directing films during their leisure time, often for free, and they have other paying jobs; and several teleseminars on writing, publishing, and promoting books, which is also more of a hobby for participants, since they hope to get books published, but have other jobs.

Structurally, some individuals who might attend these Meetup groups may be constrained because of the common structural problems that have been identified, including time commitments, costs, facilities and opportunities, skills and abilities, and transportation and access. Some people can’t attend any of these activities, because they have another event to go to at that time or they may have extra work to do, so they can’t spare the time to attend. Though there is no cost for the meetings, some people may be constrained by the cost of getting to my house, including the gas and toll from San Francisco, Marin, or the Peninsula, and the cost of contributing something to the potluck (which many people have to buy because they don’t have the time to make something).

Another constraint is that some people may be uncomfortable about going to an event in a private house. Some may not attend the discussion groups or teleseminars, because they feel their skills are not yet up to par, although they hope someday to become a produce and director or finish their book. Some may not attend because they have problems with access, since they have trouble getting to my house if they don’t have a car, because they have problems getting there by bus or BART (which are 1-3 miles from my house respectively), and they can’t get a ride. And if someone has a serious disability, they will have trouble getting into my house, which is not wheelchair accessible.

The intrapersonal constraint may come into play when some people decide not to come because they feel uncomfortable in large groups or meeting new people, such as to the Video Potlucks, since these not only involve socializing before the film over dinner but then sharing during introductions and in a discussion of the film after the showing. Others may not come because they fear opening up and showing the work they have done since they fear criticism.

The interpersonal constraint may occur when some people decide not to come because their friends or family may be doing something else or their peers may put down going to the activity. For example, their peers may be interesting in attending and discussing first run films in theaters, whereas my video potluck nights feature films on DVD from Blockbuster that come out about three months later than a theatrical release. Or their peers may discourage them from attending a director or producer discussion group, since they will be discussing their work with others who are similarly trying to break into the industry or producing and directing small films as a hobby. Their peers may claim they should only go to programs where they will meet people who are already established in the industry or convince them they don’t need any more feedback, since their project is already very good.

In short, these three concepts can be readily applied to understanding participation in the leisure activities I organize.

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5 Routine Bicycle Maintenance Tips To Extend the Life Of Your Bike

When you ride your bike a considerable amount of time, it’s a given that the cycle will eventually break down just from constant use. Tires pop frequently, pedals break, steering becomes misaligned and pedals break, among other things. While these breakdowns are sometimes inevitable, there are certain maintenance tips that can be performed to extend the life of the bike for the longest stretch possible:

Store the Bike Indoors

One of the biggest culprits to poor bicycle function is exposure to rain and snow. This moisture corrodes the moving parts of a bicycle which leads to a shorter life span and a less pleasant riding experience. Even storing a bike underneath shelter but in an uninsulated shed or under an awning could be hazardous to the chain, frame, and brakes of the bike. The easiest tip of maintenance is to store your bike in a climate controlled area when the weather turns.

Clean and Grease the Seat Post

There’s nothing more than seeing a perfectly functional and immaculate conditioned bike headed to the 2-wheel graveyard because of a seat post that no longer moves. If the seat is stuck in a comfortable position, it’s not that big of a deal but too many people have tried to hacksaw the post free only to make the frame unusable. The best way to make sure this doesn’t happen is with preventative maintenance in removing the seat every so often and cleaning and lubricating it.

Lubricate Moving Parts

Bike owners will come to find out that ball bearings, hubs, and other moveable parts can be a nuisance when they start to go bad. Those same owners will also find out (sometimes the hard way) that a $3.69 can of bicycle oil is all it takes to prevent these issues. When a bearing or pedal crankcase starts to fail, it causes connecting parts to overcompensate which results in more costly repairs than if a person would just lubricate their moving parts on a regular basis.

Clean the Bike

The odds are you’ll encounter a lot of dust, dirt, and debris on your ride no matter if you’re in the mountains or on the paved city trails. Instead of letting this grime settle and reaching into the cracks and crevices of your bike keep a clean towel where you park your ride and give it a good rub down at the end of the day. On the weekends when time permits, clean the bike thoroughly with dish detergent which also allows for an up-close inspection of parts that may be failing.

Keep Tires True

Out of balance tires can cause wear on other parts of the bike from the brake to the shifters and more. Keeping tires true is not a detailed process at all, it simply involves flipping the bike upside down and adjusting spokes either in or out back to center. This quick and easy task done once a month or so can save riding headaches in the long run.

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Sound System Rental – Exciting Sound Enhancements You Could Use In A Dance Party Setting

When you are putting together a dance party and are compelled for one reason or another to use sound system rental, there are several options that you can add to your rental that can significantly enhance the overall experience of the participants and can make your dance party an even greater success.

What makes a dance party memorable should have the components of unexpected, participatory, and emotional. The unexpected sound enhancements will catch the audience’s attention. Audience’s participation makes the event much more memorable, and, depending on what happens, also quite emotional.

When picking music system rentals, especially speaker rentals, it will behoove you to know what options you will have to choose from.

We will first go over the must-have sound components for a dance party, and then mention the possible optional extensions which enhance the unexpected components, participatory components, and emotional components of your audio visual equipment rental.

Must-have components of a sound system rental

These are the bare minimum components of a portable sound system for a good sound experience when throwing a dance party:

  • A pair of powered heavy duty speakers with the 800 Watt to 1500 Watt maximal power load. The speakers must come with high enough speaker stands for maximum sound clarity and range.
  • A minimum of four-channel mixer to allow mixing of iPod, turntable, CD, and microphone sounds. You want to avoid long pauses between songs, and want to be ready to bring on the music that will get people back to the dance floor.
  • The sound sources of choice, the iPod or an MP3 player, one or more CD players, and at least one microphone.

Sound enhancements to your DJ rental equipment to spice up your dance party

This is the additional audio video, AV rental equipment that, when used in moderation, can significantly enhance the sound itself, and make for a more memorable dance experience:

  • DJ machines, including DJ turntables, DJ CD turntables, and DJ MP3 turntables. Depending on your DJing skills, these could add significantly to the experience for dance parties. At a bare minimum, experience with mixing the music inputs will be very valuable.
  • Karaoke machines, could be valuable for certain parties
  • A multi channel mixer with digital effects, such as vocal reverb can add a new dimension and can enhance singers sound, when used sparingly.
  • One or two additional, wired or wireless microphones
  • A fog machine with sufficient fog supply. Works best in a dark, environment with a light show.
  • Tekno bubbles, a blacklight sensitive UV bubbles, they glow in the dark when shone on by the black light.

If you implement just a few of these additional sound enhancements in your dance party, you will likely find that people will come back to you after the event and thank you for a job well done. Your enhanced AV rental equipment will be well worth the money spent.

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The Entrepreneurial Ability – One of Society’s Scarce Resources

Have you ever wondered what the 4 most important resources in any given economy are?

They go as follows:

1. Land – which includes all the natural resources that go along with it.

2. Labor- people have to work to get anything done, right?

3. Capital- probably not what you’re thinking; this category isn’t money! It includes tools and machinery, and any other productive item.

4. Entrepreneurial Ability- something unique and specific to people! Not everybody has this! Do you?

Isn’t interesting that any given economy must have entrepreneurs! All the resources in the world, including land, lumber, minerals, food, labor, and tools will create nothing without the entrepreneur. Those innovative minds create many of the luxuries that we enjoy today; without them, we’d be without everything!

So what exactly does an entrepreneur do?

An entrepreneur, by simple definition, takes the initiative in combining resources like land, labor, tools, and other items to produce some sort of service or product. They are the ones that start everything! If you don’t have an entrepreneur, no advances in society take place; thus, making it difficult for an economy to grow and improve.

An entrepreneur is also an innovator; or, in other words, somebody who creates from given resources. They collect what is available, and put it together to form something useful for all. If you have no creativity, you may not be fit for entrepreneurial tasks.

Also, one of the reasons why the entrepreneurial ability is such a scare resource is because the entrepreneur assumes ALL of the risk. What happens if the idea flops? What then? Does his or her family end up without means to survive? The greater the risk, the greater the reward! Look at people like Bill Gates, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, and Henry Ford- these are some of the greatest entrepreneurs and in order to bring us so many great things, these men had to risk everything!

It’s clear that society could not have an effective economy unless the entrepreneurial ability existed within its people.

If you have those qualities and have some ideas, don’t hesitate to create! Your contributions will promote change and improvement in an ever growing economy!

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5 Steps Employment Lawyers Advise You To Take If Your Rights Have Been Violated

You feel your rights have been violated at work, you’ve done a thorough job researching your issue, and you think you have a good case to pursue against your employer. Now what? It can be hard to find a qualified and experienced attorney as there are few employment lawyers that work on behalf of employees compared to how many work for employers. Follow these five steps to make sure that your claim has the greatest chance of success.

1. Have A Conversation With Your Employer

First, you should file your statement of complaint with the human resources department at your company. Filing with HR first can sometimes provide a temporary or even permanent solution to the issue. You may also want to speak with your boss to see if the issue can be resolved before moving forward with a formal complaint. Make sure to stay professional and polite and avoid personal attacks. Keep a written record of all conversations and try not to gossip with your co-workers about the situation. If a conversation occurs, follow up via email with a summary of that conversation.

2. Determine If Your Employer Is Bound By Federal Law

The Family Medical Leave Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, and a few other federal laws govern employers that engage in interstate commerce. If you’re not sure about your company, call the Wages and Hours Division of the Department of Labor, and they will tell you. They will also tell you if you need to file a state claim before proceeding with a federal claim as sometimes all state remedies must be exhausted before you can file at the federal level. Experienced employment lawyers can be particularly useful at this stage.

3. Gather Together All Required Information

When preparing to file your complaint, make sure you have gathered all of the required information. You will need your contact information as well as your employer’s, and documentation that shows your position and pay. The court will look more favorably on written documents and evidence such as wage stubs, work transcripts, hiring and/or firing forms, and any relevant receipts. If you have any witness statements, employment lawyers will advise you to get these in writing.

4. File The Formal Complaint

When it’s time to file with the appropriate government agency, you will generally start with the agency that governs your type of claim depending on if you are alleging discrimination, unfair hiring practices, workplace safety issues, etc. You will then be directed to your local office. An investigation will be conducted, and a determination made if your employer is liable. Based on that determination, a remedy may be issued such as an award for damages or an order for a change in the employer’s work policies.

5. Follow The Progress Of The Complaint

If no violation is found, or you and your employer were not able to reach a settlement, then it is up to you to decide if you want to pursue private action. Interviewing employment lawyers at this point and having them review your case is likely your best solution.

Following these five steps should help you build the most successful employment case.

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Everything You Need to Know About Holistic Doctors

Holistic medical doctors combine the modern scientific treatment with complementary or alternative medicine like massage, acupuncture and chiropractic. The holistic doctor looks at everything and then gives a pharmaceutical drug option as well as an alternative treatment that could include homeopathic remedy. Homeopathic treatment isn’t something many doctors and institutions embrace, but it is under the umbrella of holistic medicine.

A holistic doctor will most often encourage some diagnostic testing like hormone levels and adrenal function. This is done so as to try and find if there are any underlying causes that have led to an imbalance. The whole person is considered in the whole healing process so as to have health at its optimal by having balance.

The practitioners in this area are of the belief that a human has parts that are interdependent and when one isn’t working as it should, all the others are affected. This means that if there is any kind of imbalance regardless of the type, it affects the overall health to a great extent.

A good example is a person suffering from migraines. If they decide to visit this kind of doctor, they may not work out with only medications. The doctor will take time to look at all the possible factors that could be causing the headaches. He will also search for any other health problems that could cause the migraines including personal problems, stress, sleep habits and even diet. Treatment can involve using drugs as well as modifications to one’s lifestyle to make sure that the headaches don’t recur.

The principles

Holistic medicine also believes that unconditional support and love are very powerful healers and that a person is actually responsible for their own wellbeing and health. Other principles are:

  • The patient isn’t a disease but a person
  • Everyone has got innate healing powers
  • Treatment should involve the fixing, of course not just dealing with the symptoms.
  • There is a need for a team approach for healing to be effective and it should involve the doctor and patient and should address all the different aspects of personal life of the patient using a wide range of practices in health care.

Types of treatment

Different treatment techniques are applied to help patients to be responsible and to achieve their optimal health. The approaches depend on the training of the practitioner and they can include:

  • Education regarding self-care and lifestyle changes so as to promote wellness, including spiritual counseling, relationship counseling, and psychotherapy and even exercise among many others.
  • Alternative and complementary therapies including naturopathy, massage therapy, homeopathy, chiropractic care and acupuncture. And so on
  • Surgical procedures and modern medicine.

Where to find a holistic doctor?

Holistic providers can include homeopathic doctors, chiropractors, Naturopathic doctors, osteopathy doctors and even medical doctors. There are different associations that can help you get in touch with such a doctor depending on where you are based. There are online lists that can help you in finding someone close to you.

Don’t settle for the first person you find. This is a profession like others, meaning there are people who do a better job than others. A recommendation from, a trusted source like someone close to you or a health organization that is credible could be a great idea.

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5 Unusual Places to Metal Detect

Whether you’ve been metal detecting for many years or are just learning how to use a metal detector, finding the best treasures that have been carelessly dropped or left, should always be the passion of your quests. While hunting for metal goodies in commonly known areas, like pastures of land, around houses, beaches, parks, school yards or playgrounds, it’s important to consider five places where the average metal hunter may not typically consider.

1. Old Trees

Metal detecting enthusiasts should be drawn to large trees that have been standing for many years, even centuries. These natural landmarks are potential places to look around for coins, jewelry and other personal items, because people tended to congregate beneath them for social activities. Also, relics from the American Civil War can be found around trees where both Union and Confederate soldiers rested from war, preparing for future skirmishes. It’s also possible that these trees got hit by bullets as soldiers hid behind them for protection. So, bullets are probably still lodged in those trees.

2. Uprooted Trees

Hurricanes and tornados can cause large, old trees to topple and fall to the ground. In the process, roots are pulled up from the ground and soil that has not seen sunlight in many years, is exposed. Within the ground beneath the root systems you might be able to find old metal relics that were dropped before or while the tree was growing.

3. Basements of Old Houses, Taverns, and Inns

You are likely to find many kinds of lost objects where houses and taverns were located many years ago. Although these structures may no longer be standing, large deep holes that were once basements are all that remains. To locate these structures, you probably need to do some historical research because houses were typically built off the beaten path, mainly in forests. In the Northeastern part of the United States you will discover older foundations that date to the 18th century when they were parts of England’s colonies. In the past few years, many historical items have been recovered, such as: rare colonial coins, bullets, buttons, lead smoking pipes, tokens and even gold and silver rings.

4. Outhouses

Over one hundred years ago, people used thin wooden outdoor closets called outhouses for bathroom purposes. Nobody had flushing systems then, so waste simply went into a previously dug pit in the ground. When people used outhouses, coins might have fallen out of unbuckled pants as they crouched over an opening to the pit. Outhouses were also used as trash collectors, because no trash collection services existed then. So people threw old bottles, horseshoes, and many other used household items into them. Digging outhouses can lead to many great finds, but you have to be willing to dig out old feces! Eww! Locating old outhouses usually takes research. You can usually find them by searching for old houses because owners built that extra “shed” to do their private “business.”

5. Swimming Holes, Rivers and Streams

Camping, swimming, kayaking are a few activities that many outdoor enthusiasts do in the summer and fall. Many lose personal items when they are having fun in the water, especially coins, keys, iPhones, and wallets which drop out of people’s pockets as they move about in the water. Rivers and streams have also played parts in the American Revolutionary and Civil Wars. Soldiers who fought, crossed and camped have lost bullets, guns and rifles, buttons, box plates belt buckles and coins.

Successful metal detecting often leads treasure hunters to “out of the way” or naturally hidden locations. Searching through historical data can lead hunters to locations that have been abandoned for years, such as old house foundations and outhouses. Old trees, uprooted ones and popular swimming areas are natural spots that draw people for having fun. Of course, when necessary, always ask for permission to hunt. You aren’t guaranteed to find anything, but the fun in metal detecting is the search itself.

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